By Mark Turner (auth.), David H. Helman (eds.)
In the previous couple of years, there was a massive volume of job within the examine of analogy and metaphor. this is often partially due to an curiosity of synthetic intelligence researchers in simulating studying procedures utilizing analogy. It additionally arises from severe examinations of ordinary theories within the philosophy of language, with their in-built literal/meta phoric contrast. This quantity contains contemporary formerly unpub lished paintings during this quarter, with a specific emphasis upon the function of analogies in reasoning and, extra mostly, their function in concept and language. The papers are contributed by way of philosophers, computing device scientists, cognitive scientists and literary critics. Researchers in those fields whose concentration is the research of analogy and metaphor will locate a lot of curiosity during this quantity. those essays may also function an creation to a couple of the main ways taken within the research of analogy. As famous, this quantity brings jointly the paintings of researchers in different diverse disciplines. a number of the techniques occupied with admire to the certainty of analogy are typically particularly varied, despite the fact that, the articles recommend a typical end. Analogy and metaphor pervade suggestion and language; their shut research therefore constitutes a precious contribution to our knowing of folks. DAVID H. HELMAN Case Western Reserve collage vii half I CONCEPTUAL AND express THEORIES OF ANALOGICAL realizing MARK TURNER different types AND ANALOGIES i would like to pursue the subsequent claims: the best way we categorize is helping clarify the best way we realize a press release as an analogy.
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Additional info for Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy
John is blind as a bat. are obviously not semantically equivalent to structures like (5) John is a blind bat. Despite these differences between metaphors and similes, the basic ingredients of the two figures of speech are the same: two noun phrases or nominal structures and their syntactic and semantic relationships. METAPHORICAL STYLE AS MESSAGE 43 Theoreticians of antiquity such as Greek or Sanskrit rhetoricians as well as recent analysts have recognized the general role played by the two basic structures in a metaphor, and the latter have used various labels for them such as "tenor" and ''vehicle,'' Richards (1936: 96), "principal subject" and "subsidiary subject," Black (1962: 39), "Argumentt" and "Argument2", Mack (1973: 59), "metaphrand" and "metaphier," Jaynes (1976: 48), "A" and "B," Lakoff and Johnson (1980: 153), and so on.
And Abelson, R. (1977), Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding, Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Schank, R. C. (1975), Conceptual Information Processing, New York: North-Holland. Schank, R. C. (1973), 'Identification of conceptualizations underlying natural language', in Computer Models of Thought and Language, ed. K. M. Colby, San Francisco CA: Freeman, pp. 187-247. Smith, E. E. and Medin, D. L. (1981), Categories and Concepts, Cambridge MA: Harvard U Press. MARK JOHNSON SOME CONSTRAINTS ON EMBODIED ANALOGICAL UNDERSTANDING Arguments over the cognitive status of analogy are strikingly similar to those that recur again and again in the endless debates about the reducibility of metaphor.
Notice that an analogy is generally not ambiguous because, as indicated earlier, it tends to be explicit through reliance on exposition. The meaning of a brief sentence like (6), however, cannot be equally clear when the context is not known. In addition to the possibilities of different metaphorical interpretations there is also the possibility that (6) refers to an actual ox named John; in that case the sentence is a literal statement, not a metaphor. The claim about the general assumption being appropriate only in relation to a specific language can easily be proved by translating (6) into some other language.
Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy by Mark Turner (auth.), David H. Helman (eds.)