By Goran Bergman
I. creation 3
II. tools 7
1. fabric and means of recording 7
2. movie research 7
three. The meteorological facts 9
III. The id of the migrants 10
IV. the rate and path of migration thirteen
1. the rate of flight and its dependence on quite a few exterior and internal
2. The course of migration and the criteria affecting it 21
three. The effect of topographical elements at the course 36
V. The influence of meteorological elements at the depth of migration 44
1. energy and path of the wind 45
2. Cloudiness 47
three. Visibility 49
four. Temperature 50
VI. The geographical distribution of the migration 50
References fifty seven
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Extra info for An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland
I /' : /. /' -"! - /'_ -. ,. I - ! ------ ' ;I� - --- �-��-- ! -- � D I I_ I°' I __ - ii. + '=--*�- - , _jl__ ---� - - - ---- --. • j t� � ! I ---------- - _J F1G . 1 5 . General course of the migration during the night. an attempt \\·ill then be made to summarize the kind of general behaviour and reactions of the birds that are predictable on the present material. The effects to be described refer to the only condition where the effect of the topography is quite obivious, namely when the birds on their flight meet a coastline, either on the mainland or islands of the archipelago on the open sea.
Donner : Spring migration () 0 14 r3 () >-.. � ,0 O> a () <»:> � 0 � j � II I I • • I i _J • 5 Speed increase, m sec 10 FIG. 21 . The intensity of migration in relation to the speed increase or decrease produced by the wind. The degree of overcast indicated in each case by the degree of filling of the circles. Circles with squares denote cases with full or nearly full overcast (� 75 %) which have not been included in the statistical treatment. 81 . shown below, there is very good reason to believe that migration is inhibited by a high degree of overcast ( >60 - 70 %) .
In that case there is no change in direction until the birds are very close to the land, apparently because the tendency to maintain the normal 44 G . Bergman & K . 0 . Donne r : Spring migration direction of flight is strong enough to suppress a tendency to tum, which may be weak so long as the land is right in front of the birds. The situation is then symmetrical with reference to stimuli that may give rise to a change in direct ion and gives no clue regarding which way to tum. At a certain moment the birds are so close to the land that the kind of »panic» behaviour described above follows, with a sudden and radical change in the direction of flight.
An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland by Goran Bergman